Diseño e implementación de un esquema intrahospitalario de Nutrición Parenteral. II. Nutrición Parenteral Central

Sergio Santana Porbén, Jesús Barreto Penié, Carmen Martínez Espinosa, Alicia Espinosa Borrás

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En este artículo se presentan el diseño e implementación de un esquema intra-hospitalario de Nutrición Parenteral Central (NPC). Este trabajo continúa y expande el dedicado previamente a los esquemas de Nutrición Parenteral Periférica [Santana Porbén S, Barreto Penié J, Martínez González C, Borrás Espinosa A. Diseño e implementación de un esquema intrahospitalario de Nutrición Parenteral. I. Nutrición Parenteral Periférica. RCAN Rev Cubana Aliment Nutr 2007;17:186-208]. Ambos, a su vez, complementan otro dedicado a la provisión institucional de Nutrición enteral [Martínez González C, Santana Porbén S. Diseño e implementación de un esquema intrahospitalario de Nutrición enteral. RCAN Rev Cubana Aliment Nutr 2001;15:130-8]. La utilidad y seguridad del esquema de NPC dependen de la correcta selección del paciente; la correcta selección y cuidado de la vía venosa utilizada para la infusión de los nutrientes parenterales; la correcta selección del dispositivo de canalización de la vía venosa; la correcta formulación de la orden de NPC; y los ritmos de inicio, progresión, mantenimiento y retiro del esquema. Estas acciones deben quedar documentadas en procedimientos de alcance institucional. Los equipos básicos de trabajo deben registrar los incidentes, accidentes y errores que ocurran durante la conducción de los esquemas de NPC, y definir consecuentemente las correspondientes acciones remediales y profilácticas. El monitoreo de la marcha del esquema de NPC instalado debe constituir parte importante de la labor de los grupos locales de apoyo nutricional. Las innumerables opciones tecnológicas que brinda la práctica de la Nutrición Parenteral pueden confundir a los equipos básicos de trabajo acerca de las bondades implícitas y el lugar que deben ocupar dentro de la Nutrición Artificial. Se espera de la observancia de las recomendaciones expuestas en este artículo la maximización de los beneficios de la Nutrición Parenteral, la minimización de las complicaciones, y disminución de los costos de aplicación.

Palabras clave

Nutrición parenteral central; Nutrición artificial; Apoyo nutricional; Aseguramiento de la calidad; Acceso venoso

Referencias

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